Protected areas in Indonesia (accounting for more than 55 million hectares) have been designated for the purpose of providing environmental services, conservation and social and cultural services.
The largest component of protected areas in Indonesia consists of protection forests (31.6 million ha) followed by National Parks (23.3 million ha) and others. While National Parks have received considerable attention and management by central government; protection forests have received less attention and are managed by the local government. There is no active management of protected areas on the ground.
Development and a growing population have driven up demand for natural resources and protection forest is now being targeted for this increased demand for food, energy and building materials. These areas have become everybody's interest: regulation and financing for management area needed and the interests of communities living in and around these forests have to be heard. The interest in protected areas by the community at large is shown by the intense debate over the recent adoption of the government regulation No. 2 of 2008 on Tariff of Non Tax Government Revenue (PNBP) derived from the use of forest areas (particularly protection forests).
The perception by central government is that disturbance of protected areas is caused mostly by local communities. But while people have lived in and around these forests long before they were designated as protection forest, local land use systems in protected areas are not formally acknowledged and are basically ignored.
Protection forest has to be protected and managed to maintain its environmental services, which requires an active attitude from the various governments and the involvement of local communities. TBI intervention and studies in Gunung Lumut Protection Forest and other protected areas have increased understanding of their functions, their rich biodiversity and the role of local communities in protecting the forest.
This project will look at the importance of local land use systems in protected forest management, explore how they can improve protected areas management and at the same time avoid the marginalization of local communities in their management. Ultimately, this should lead to improved security and clarity of protected areas management.
2009 - 2013