Protected areas in Indonesia (accounting for more than 55 million hectares) have been designated for the purpose of providing environmental services, conservation and social and cultural services.
Limited rights and access to natural resources and declining forest resources leave local communities few other livelihood options but to engage in activities that yield immediate economic gain, particularly illegal logging activities, and convert forest lands for other purposes (e.g. oil palm) that can provide quick cash income. This, in turn, leads to further degradation of natural resources, resulting in the erosion of the support basis for sustainable livelihoods.
Our interest is to learn how to incorporate customary rights and claims into formal spatial planning processes.