Starting in 2019, Tropenbos Indonesia involves in a project called “Working Landscape, Promoting sustainable use of forests and trees for people and climate”. This project promotes climate smart landscapes in the tropics and contributes to climate change mitigation, adaptation, improved livelihoods and environmental integrity, which are crucial to support the achievement of the world’s commitment to Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
|Indonesia - Ketapang and Kayong Utara Landscapes|
|Ketapang and Kayong Utara are adjacent districts, that together cover 3,5 million ha. It is a heavily deforested area with important remaining primary forests and a large percentage of peatlands that are particularly important for climate due to their high carbon content and susceptibility to fire. The landscapes are a reflection of what is happening in many other parts in Indonesia by seeing a very strong proliferation of cash crops (oil palm), including a rapidly increasing uncontrolled expansion of independent smallholders, which has led to conversion, degradation and fragmentation of forests, with severe consequences for biodiversity. Natural resource governance is poor, existing policies, regulations and multi-stakeholder processes do not function effectively, and local communities have limited participation in decision-making processes. These landscapes should present an integrated landscape model demonstrating forest and peatland conservation and smallholder agriculture in an intensely managed agrocommodity landscape.|
|Vulnerability to climate change|
Increasing risk of large scale fire/haze in degraded forests especially on peat; risk of deforestation associated with smallholder palm oil expansion; limited vulnerability of main crops.
|Summary of workplan 2021|
|Model 1: Demonstration of an oil palm landscape that protects and connects HCV and HCS in the form of agro-ecological connection zone in production areas (APL), known as essential ecosystem areas (KEE), which is collaboratively managed by multi-stakeholders (government, estate companies, civil society and local communities) within and outside the landscape.|
|First, we seek to reactivate a working group to protect Gunung Palung National park, with the mandate of the province and Ketapang district government. The working group will include stakeholders who are directly involved in land-use management along the legally defined wildlife corridor (KEE), connecting Sungai Putri and Gunung Palung National Park, and will stimulate implementation of the agreed action plan that operationalizes the KEE concept. Second, we will urge the Ketapang district government to enforce the decree that 7% of all oil palm plantations have to be allocated as HCV areas. We will also train local people (especially youth) in three communities to monitor the sustainability of land-use practices within large-scale oil palm plantations and to utilize grievance mechanisms to address improper practices. Third, we will continue working with the governments of Ketapang and Kayong Utara to implement the national moratorium on oil palm plantation expansion, which is hampered by a lack of accurate data. In 2020 we analyzed the spatial distribution of small- and large-scale oil palm plantations. In 2021 we will facilitate province and district government to use this information to enforce the moratorium, and to allocate government resources to improve independent smallholder palm oil (ISP) governance.|
|Model 2: Implement community-based models for sustainable peatland management.|
|(a) Protect carbon stocks through a community-based peatland conservation approach under the Indonesian NDC.|
These activities focus on the Pematang Gadung sub-landscape. In 2020 we conducted participatory (hydrological) mapping and a terrestrial survey supported by drone observation, to identify potential sites for canal blocking, which is a key step towards sustainable peatland management. In 2021, we will collaborate with village governments to facilitate a Free Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) process, to ensure that canal blocking will happen with community input and backing. Also, by the end of 2021, the Pematang Gadung multi-stakeholder working group—which we established in 2020—should have agreed on a collaborative plan for land and forest fire prevention in the sub-landscape.
|(b) Restore degraded peatlands by peatland-adapted agroforestry/ agriculture supported by income earning models that link peatland restoration with sustainable development, and exploring multiple funding sources to enhance stakeholder participation in green investments.|
This will focus on peat swamp forests, managed under village forest permits in Sungai Pelang and Sungai Besar and Pematang Gadung. As the latter does not yet have a village forest permit, we will assist the village with acquiring a permit, which will create full local control over a peat-swamp production forest of 12,000 ha. Further, we will collaborate with Operation Wallacea to set up carbon-offset payment schemes to halt deforestation in degraded peat swamp forests of Pematang Gadung, and to enhance carbon sequestration by replanting saplings of indigenous tree species sourced from local community nurseries. We will also work with a green fund raising company (‘Lestari Capital’) to help palm oil companies to meet new sustainability requirements from the RSPO (i.e. RSPO’s High Conservation Value loss Remediation and Compensation Procedures), and connecting this with conservation and restoration in Pematang Gadung peat swamp forests.
|Model 3: Implement a jurisdictional village-cluster-based zero deforestation model for independent smallholder palm oil producers integrated in the palm oil value chain based on sound village-level planning and adoption of good agricultural practices which comply to appropriate standards and ESG Performance criteria.|
|These activities focus in Pematang Gadung and Gunung Palung sub-landscapes. In 2020, we established ISP farmer groups in Pematang Gadung sub-landscape, to promote intercropping of oil palm with pineapple and dragon fruit. We facilitated legal registration of the farmers at the district government and made connections between the farmer groups and a palm oil company (PT Artu Plantation), which is now the guaranteed buyer of the fresh fruit bunches. In 2021 we will establish similar relations between ISP farmer groups in the Gunung Palung sub-landscape and the company PT KAL, as part of the deforestation free supply-chain. We also plan to complete participatory land-use planning in three villages, to ensure that no development activities are conducted at the expense of forests. After that, we will facilitate the legalization of these plans through inter-village regulation, which will contribute to the protection of forests and maintenance of traditional land-uses. In the meantime, we will support six farmer groups (160 - 200 farmers) to clarify land tenure status and boundaries and implement good agriculture practices in order to comply with the new ISPO standard. By the end of 2021, one Village Business Unit (BUMDES) in each sub-landscape will have made agreements with responsible buyers to transport and market fresh fruit bunches.|
|Model 4: Protect the indigenous community (Dayak) forested areas and traditional land uses based on sustainable management and business models for NTFP and Ecosystem services|
|These activities focus on the Gunung Palung and Simpang Dua sub-landscapes. We seek to strengthen local control over forest resources through the social forestry programme, and establish clear models of rubber agroforestry, NTFP commercialization and ecotourism. We will assist at least three village governments with village forest permit applications. We will increase the profitability of jungle rubber by building farmers’ capacity for post-harvest treatment and creating linkages with responsible buyers. By the end of 2021, two Village Business Units will have made agreements with responsible buyers to transport and market rubber produced in the village. We also plan to assist indigenous communities with the production and marketing of high-quality rattan and bamboo traditional handicrafts, and will train youth and women to act as natural interpreters and trade traditional merchandize through E-commerce, in support of local ecotourism |
Local community in Gunung Palung have started management of HCV area in partnership with large-scale palm-oil plantation as ecotourism and source of NTFPs. While those who developed forest-based ecotourism in partnership with Forest Management Unit (KPH) and Gunung Palung National Park have promoted their ecosystem services through social media to raiser their captive market.
|NDCs: Proof of climate-smart production models serves as input for Indonesia’s NDC revision and implementation|
|To develop a model of climate-smart peatland management, we will facilitate efforts to improve hydrological conditions of the peat swamp ecosystem in the Pematang Gadung sub-landscape to prevent fire and restore its carbon stock, and will facilitate registering villages in the area as so-called Climate Care (‘Proklim’) villages and Fire Care (‘Desa Peduli Api’)) villages. We will document all the lessons learned on the step-by-step process and share them with the National Peatland Restoration Agency (BRG), MoEF, province and district government and research organizations, so this can be replicated to other peatland areas and can serve as input for Indonesia’s NDC adjustment/formulation. Simultaneously we will work to improve the awareness among landscape stakeholders about the NDC, and help them to formulate a strategy to manage agriculture, forests and other land uses (AFOLU) towards more climate-smart landscapes, involving smallholders, IPLC and women and youth. This should also contribute to the National Adaptation Plan (NAP). We will share our experiences with the TBI network.|